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Climate Action: We are in danger of extinction, Delta communities cry out for justice


The condition of life for members of Odimodi and Okuntu communities in Delta State has gone south after decades of climate and environmental crisis bedeviling the area.


Members of the communities are still licking the wounds of the oil spill that occurred in their area in 2018 as evidence on ground reveal that Shell is yet to carry out a proper cleanup of the oil spill caused by their operations.

Members of these communities report that their livelihood and health is seriously challenged as their waters neither give good fishes nor can they access clean drinking water. This revelation came to the fore on November 6, 2021 when Community Development Advocacy Foundation (CODAF) and African Centre for Environmental and Rural Development (ACERD) marked the day for global climate action in the Communities.
The Organisations embarked on a sea-side action to monitor, report, engage and expose (MORE-E) decades of climate and environmental crisis committed against the indigenous people of the Niger Delta (especially those living in the creeks) by Shell, AGIP, Chevron and a host of other extractive industries.

 The action which kicked off at Odimodi community terminated at the sea-side of Okuntu and Ibabebe communities with a rally.

Feedback from the action revealed that Shell is yet to carry out a proper cleanup of the oil spill that occurred in 2018 at Odimodi as the oil is still visible in the community. Shells effluent discharge point was discovered at Okuntu community.

Flagging off the action the Executive Director, Benin Richard informed the community that the aim of the action was to strengthen the resilience of the suffering host communities in the Niger Delta and to also propagate their demands to concerned bodies.

 Richard noted that the effects of climate change could be devastating to vulnerable coastal and marine areas as well as to the function and structure of their ecosystems.

 He said the increasing sea level changes the shape of coastlines, contributes to coastal erosion and leads to flooding and more underground salt-water intrusion and wiping out of communities by the sea side like what we are already seeing at Forcados and Okuntu communities.

Receiving the team, the Vice chairman of Odimodi Community Godgift Egberibo said the meeting was very significant to their plight while the Secretary of Okuntu community Mr Monfort  Mebilanje said the engagement became an eye opener and an opportunity for them to tell their stories to the world. 

Lamenting, Mrs Monday Alagoa said “crude oil spillage has polluted their lands and water bodies affecting fishing and farming activities”.


Other respondents in Odimodi community also confirmed that Oil and Gas activities over the years have created astronomical depletion in the regenerative biodiversity of the ecosystem.

 They said a single farming venture of periwinkle which would have yielded about 600kg per household a decade ago yields less than 50kg. 

Also the same depletion has affected crop farming in the communities. This was brought about by lack of proper remediation of the spill impacted environment in the communities.

While both communities share the same environmental and ecological crises, Okuntu is situated along the Atlantic shore line with the entire community being threatened by coastal erosion.

According to the fisher folks in Okuntu community, fishing activities has been made difficult due to the regular discharge of effluent from Shell’s facility into the ocean and the industrial fishing activity by unidentified companies. 

The fisher folks complained that the effluent discharge alters the natural water chemistry of the ocean which affect fishing activities and the destruction of fishing gears by unidentified fishing industries.

The Okuntu community is gradually disappearing due to rising coastal erosion that had in the past washed off part of the community. 

Both Odimodi and Okuntu communities affirmed that there is a lack of government presence in the community as all the promises made by the government to them as way of cushioning the effects of the oil pollution on the livelihoods and the health of the members of the communities have not been kept.

Fred Nohwo of ACERD warned that if offshore oil drilling activity is not discouraged, owing to the numerous environmental crimes being committed that are often covered up by the oil industries like Shell as most spills by the oil industries are immediately dispersed without recovery and cleanup. 

CODAF team and the communities demanded that the oil industry should commit to real zero and not net zero which they said is the foundation in addressing all the climate and ecological crisis globally. 

They urged Nigerian government and the oil industries to clean up the Niger Delta and Restore the mangrove ecosystem, government declare a state of emergency in the fishing sector. And that the Niger Delta oil should be left in the soil, while shunning offshore oil drilling.

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Communique Issued at the end of the School of Governance organized by CODAF with focus on Waste Governance at Ughelli, Delta State

Waste Management



The Community Development Advocacy Foundation (CODAF), also known as Rural Community Empowerment Initiative (RUCEi) organized the second edition of its School of Governance (SoG) on May 24, 2021 in Ughelli, Delta State. The SoG that had as it theme: "Waste Governance" was aimed at creating the opportunities for all members of the society to make meaningful contributions to decision-making in the waste management sector and seek to broaden the range of people who have access to such opportunities. And to avail stakeholders the opportunity to interact, learn and proffer measures to strengthen political systems, government mechanisms and legal systems in which democracy and respect of human rights are secured through effective waste management.

Approaches used throughout the training involved a combination of plenary and small group activities, presentations, discussion and experiential learning. A course advisor, Fred Nohwo, often generated discussions and led in presentations and providing guidance to facilitators and clarifications to participants. Participants were therefore treated to insightful presentations by Dr. Zibima Denyefa, Senior Lecturer, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa - Waste Governance: Concept and misconceptions in waste,  Fred Nohwo, ACERD - Achieving Zero Waste: Challenges and opportunities, Babawale Obayanju, ERA/FoEN, Benin City - Waste to Wealth: How much efforts is being made and what impacts? Others were from Benson Dotun Fasanya, Centre for Earth Work, Jos - Achieving Zero Waste: False Solutions Vs Real Solutions, SACHI STAFF - Risk and Health Challenges associated with Waste Management and Titigbe Onyekachi, National Volunteer Lead, CODAF, Lagos - X-raying the Lagos Waste Management Strategy.


Participants were selected from among Environmental Health Officers attached to the Ughelli North Local Government, Civil Society Organizations, Students and environmental activists. The Participants saluted the idea of the School of Governance by CODAF while noting that it has some unique human rights tools and relevant social models which can help to improve the health, environment, economic and social activity of indigenous  people and beyond through community-focused and participatory initiatives.

At the end of the engaging discussions, Participants observed thus:
  1. That the volume of waste generated in the society does not actually constitute the problem but the inability of governments and waste-disposal firms to keep up with their mandates and full responsibility towards ensuring zero waste, 
  2. The main causes of the poor waste management practice in Nigeria can be linked to a failure in governance (lack of technical know-how, insufficient budgets; weak legislation; low public awareness; corruption, conflict; political instability; and lack of political will to enforce waste management guidelines),
  3. In states in Nigeria with effective waste management policies, it remains uncertain how such policies are being translated into action and what progress, if any, has been made towards achieving zero waste,
  4. Waste management practices in Nigeria results in the indiscriminate dumping and leakage of waste into the environment, thereby creating the risks of disease burden, flooding and environmental pollution,
  5. People are willing to pay for waste management system if it is well coordinated, 
  6. Most of the litters we see in the environment today are mainly from passengers who dispose their waste while on transit,
  7. Zero waste is a revolution in the relationship between waste and people and a new way of thinking that aims to safeguard the health and improve the lives of everyone who produces, handles, works with, or is affected by waste-in other words, all of us.
Recommendations
  1. The needs for governments to establish a functional partnerships across waste actors and creating synergy between public and private actors and the layered roles in ensuring effective waste management,
  2. Developing policy instruments for waste prevention and reduction by keeping pace with growing and emerging waste streams and innovating strategies to deal with them,
  3. All business owners must engage in environmental cleanup exercise as a way if taking responsibility to ensure that their immediate environment is clean and this must be supported by law enforcement agents,
  4. There is need to inculcate waste management in school curriculums as a way of raising awareness from the grassroots,
  5. Government should press for Public Private Partnerships Laws on packaging and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and public private partnerships as solutions as well to zero waste,


Signed by:

Benin Richard                                                              Ubrei-Joe, M. Mariere
Executive Director, CODAF                                                      Course Coordinator
                                                                                Nohwo Fred
                                                                            Course Advisor



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CODAF Established A Million Tree School Club at Sonnicity Universal School Ughelli , Delta State

One of the commitments made during the second flag off of the A Million Tree Project which took place at the Ughelli North Local Government Secretariats on October 5, 2020 was to scale up the project to secondary schools. On the 4th of May, 2021, CODAF team led by its Executive Director, Benin Richard, visited Sonnicity Universal School Ughelli, Delta State for the establishment of the A Million Tree School Club (AMTSC) and the flagging off of the project in the school. The presence of the CODAF team was well greeted by the teachers present who were already inquisitive about knowing what the "A Million Tree Project" was all about.



In a sequential order according to their class, the students assembled at the assembly ground. Addressing the students on the importance of the project, Benin Richard started with the need to preserve the environment and the role of trees in this regard. To test the understanding of the students of the importance of trees, the students were made to list some tree species known to them. Miss Bella, a primary three pupil, made a mind-blowing presentation on the importance of trees to our environment. CODAF team and the entire school management were amazed at how an eight-year old girl could demonstrate why the trees in the forest must be preserved. This singular action of Miss Bella earned her a scholarship from the management of CODAF.

Miss. Bella receiving a Scholarship from CODAF Executive Director 
All the students were satisfied with the lecture, and this resulted in a voluntary request from both the schoolchildren and teachers to join the A Million Tree school club, which was confirmed to be the first club in the school. Membership forms were distributed to teachers at the school who were assigned to mentor the students regarding the club's activities. CODAF further made a commitment to monitor and evaluate the progress of the club and to give room for support when it is needed, especially in production, planting and nurturing the growth of trees.

Names of teachers to supervise the A Million Tree School Club:
1. Okpolua Benedict
2. Bini Onome Jacqueline
3. Oluegba Joy
4. Obukohwo Rita.

Concluding the engagement, tree seedlings were presented to the school management which were received by Mr. Benedict Okpolua, one of the staff advisers of the AMTSC. According to Benedict, the planting of the tree will mark a new dawn of environmental consciousness in the school.

The senior prefects (head of the school) of Sonnicity Universal School, gave a vote of thanks to the CODAF team on behalf of the management, staff and students of the school. He promised that the school club would do well in representing the mission and vision of the organization well.


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16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence


This report is the fall out of the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence implemented by Community Development Advocacy Foundation (CODAF)/Rural Community Empowerment Initiative (RUCEi) with the funding support from the Government of Delta State from December 4-9, 2020. CODAF adopted a participatory research documentation, interview, gathering of testimonies and sensitization in the implementation of the 16 days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence (GBV). CODAF invested time and resources into gathering of evidence-based data on the level of awareness of the criminality of GBV, its causes and impacts in Ughelli North. The research made use of a review of secondary materials, interviews with key stakeholders, primary data through surveys and focus group discussions. The intentions of this methodology were to help CODAF to understand the local context of GBV and to harness local available solutions to the problem of GBV and to develop advocacy and campaign guides towards creating awareness for the eradication of GBV in the area. A total of 200 persons were engaged in an interview session in line with structured questionnaire and 10 testimonies were collected but only 4 quality testimonies and quotes were documented in this report. Feedback from the research were used as advocacy and sensitization messages to engage women, men, children and youths. But because of the nature of the campaign and because the outcome of the research showed that women are the main victims of GBV, more females were engaged in the campaign. In the sensitization programmes organized by CODAF, we were able to track about 300 persons engaged directly during the different sensitization programmes. The activity was conducted in 10 communities in Ughelli North LGA. The team had access to victims of GBV, the team visited hospitals, markets, base of sex workers, schools and churches. In these places, testimonies were collected from victims and relative of victims and also perpetrators of GBV.

The sensitization was very interactive because it was used to validate the feedback from the field. Apart from gathering a sizable number of persons together in line with COVID 19 protocols, our team further engaged with individuals and families separately. Our target was to reach out to about 500 persons which was achieved following our adopted methodology of carrying evangelism against GBV. We also spoke to some prominent individuals in the society to get their buying into the campaign. Some Pastors ensured that our team had access to their members and they went as far as making the campaign a sermon in their churches thereby increasing the number of people reached. 

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Delta State Government Commends CODAF on Tree Planting Campaign

The Delta State Government has applauded the Community Development Advocacy Foundation (CODAF)/Rural Community Empowerment Initiative (RUCEi) on the lunch of the phase 2 of her ‘A Million Tree Project’ saying the project was well timed.

The Executive Assistant to the State Governor, Dr. Evelyn Aluta gave the commendation on behalf of the state government yesterday during the official flag off of the project at the Ughelli Council Secretariat, noting that in the phase of perennial flooding ravaging communities, there was no better time to flag off such project that is aimed at salvaging the environment.

She maintained that saving the environment from destruction was a collective responsibility for all well-meaning Nigerians and not just government alone, calling on Nigerians and indeed Deltans to imbibe the culture of tree planting and positive environmental consciousness.

Also speaking during the event, the Executive Chairman of Ughelli North local government area, Hon. Godwin Adode, promised to provide all necessary support for CODAF/RUCEi, to ensure the success of the project.

Adode who was represented at the event by the Council’s Vice Chairman, Victor Uyoh said that outside partnering with CODAF in the project, the council will as a matter of urgency initiate a bill in the Local government Legislature that will make tree planting a compulsory requirement for any land development. He said, “We are very happy with this project because it is what we have been looking forward to. Tree planting has been one of our major concern in the local government and having an NGO that is already embarking on a project of this kind, we are ready to give them our full support. “

In his remarks, the Executive Director of CODAF, Mr. Benin Richard, said the aim of the A Million Tree Project was to improve the environment and impact life, adding that the target was to mobilize one million persons to plant a tree in their domain.

According to him, “our forest is shrinking in size and the world loses close to 3.0689 million hectares of land yearly. Nigeria’s total land area equates to 94,780,000 million hectares. Forest covers 10 percent of the total land area, with over 4,600 plant species identified, making Nigeria 11th most bio-diverse country in Africa.
“Ironically, Nigeria loses approximately 350,000 – 400,000 hectares of forest land per year which represents about four percent of forest cover. The A Million tree project, is a tree planting campaign to protect the environment and improve the quality of our environment and people’s livelihood.

Also speaking, the Executive Director of African Center for Environmental and Rural Development, ACERD, Fred Nohwo, appeal to the local government chairman to ensure that the habit of tree planting is imbibed on the people.

“If possible, politicians, corporate bodies should celebrate their birthdays and anniversaries with tree planting, as it will reduce the stress of the ozone layer”.



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Community Organizing against Land Grabbing” in Akwukwu-Igbo community

Community Action

Community Development Advocacy Foundation (CODAF)/Rural Community Empowerment Initiative (RUCEi) organized a training on “Community Organizing against Land Grabbing” in Akwukwu-Igbo community, held on October 4, 2020. This training which is being funded by the Global Greengrants Fund, had in attendance 20 participants from 10 selected community based associations/local groups. The trust of the training was to enhance the understanding of the local communities in Akwukwu-Igbo, on the tricks and tactics Industrial Oil Palm Companies, employ to grab land in local communities.


A customized training manual was designed for this training. The manual provides a set of advocacy strategies and tools for Advocates in developing countries as well as rural communities in the Niger Delta, whose lands have been captured for palm oil plantations or for agro-commodities. Taking learners through the manual, Mr. Ubrei-Joe, M. Mariere of CODAF engaged learners to understand the meaning of land grabbing, why Africa and rural communities are usually the target of land grabbers and the Impacts of Land grabbing on indigenous people. He further examined the tactics Palm Oil Companies use to Grab community Lands and gave account of the lessons from other impacts in the Niger Delta, according to him, though these stories are not documented in the training manual but they are part of the trainers guide specially designed for the training.

Going further, he provided a background information on the use of advocacy as a tool against land grabbing, with a broad definition of advocacy, its purpose, strategies and tools. The participants were introduced to several advocacy questions community can ask to know more about the company in their communities were also documented. Concluding the training, the participants were exposed to selected human rights tools in advocating against land grabbing. The selected tools are Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Health Impact Assessment, Social Impact Assessment, Community Needs Assessment.

Different reactions were received by the trainers and an Action plan was developed to attend to some of the reactions as documented below.

Reactions
  1. The communities confirmed that they woke up one morning to see bulldozers and the presence of Military Officers in their farmlands and community forest to their shock they had lost their land to Norsworthy Investment Limited, a private firm prominent in Agro-business,
  2. Women are generally seen as enemy of progress as they continued to resist all forms of human rights violation hence, they are seen as enemy of progress in the community by community leaders. They are however constantly being marginalized,
  3. There was no Free Prior and Informed Consent and Environmental Impact Assessment conducted before the company took over their land,
  4. The activities of Norsworthy Investment Limited has sown seed of discord among the communities as they remain divided while the company continue to reap more profit,
  5. Individuals from different quarters in Akwukwu-Igbo that secured employment with the company, were only employed as casuals and non-professionals,
  6. Since the arrival of Norsworthy Investment Limited in Akwukwu-Igbo, the community have not known peace amongst themselves due to the seed of discord that have been planted by the company,
  7. Of what use is Norsworthy Investment Limited in Akwukwu-Igbo when the communities are devoid of development?
  8. Since the existence of Norsworthy Investment Limited in Akwukwu-Igbo, the people have not positively felt their presence as they have not carried out a single cooperate social responsibility,
  9. The marginalize groups (women, youth and excluded men) in the community are yet to know the content of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) the leadership of the community and Delta State Government entered into with Norsworthy Investment Limited, 
Action Plan
  1. The 10 Associations mobilized to form an Umbrella body to be saddled with the responsibility of carrying out advocacy to protecting the rights of the Akwukwu-Igbo people and the environment before the end of October 2020,
  2. Youth to organized an advocacy visit to key community leaders and the King in a bid to discussing and inquiry about their level of commitment and MOU the community entered with the Company to enable them to develop key demands which they would use to engage the company in their advocacy. This action is to be completed by early November 2020,
  3. Leaders of the association trained to do step down training for their members within one week after the completion of the training and learning process.


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School of Governance’s Report on development governance training held on September 28, 2019

1.0 Introduction 
The school of governance, apart from striving to create opportunities for all members of a population to make meaningful contributions to decision-making and seek to broaden the range of people who have access to such opportunities, it also aimed at educating and preparing the next generation of researchers, teachers, and practitioners to effectively promote a participatory decision making. 


In realizing the stated objectives, Community Development Advocacy Foundation (CODAF) with the support of the Emerhana Foundation (EF), African Centre for Environmental and Rural Development (ACERD) and Yasuni Association (YA) organized training on “Development Governance”. Selection of participants was carefully done to reflect a wide range of actors which include journalists, development workers and entrepreneurs. There were about 20 participants in the training, with an overwhelming majority coming from a youthful background. In the trainings, women participants were fewer than men, the gender imbalance might be related to the fact that women generally feel withdrawn in actively participating voluntarily unless they are properly informed. Experience shows that gender balance and cultural heterogeneity can positively impact discussions on discrimination and exclusion.

2.0 Methodology
Approaches used throughout the training involved a combination of plenary and small group activities, presentations, discussion and experiential learning. The course advisor, Paul Emerhana, often generated discussions and led in presentations and providing guidance to facilitators and clarifications to participants.
Aside from discussing the purpose of the school of governance, Uruemu Judith, CODAF’s Project Officer, facilitated and led a conversation on the Poverty Tree. The poverty tree was designed to get the understanding of participants on how they view poverty. Their feedback exposes the political, social, economic and cultural dimensions of poverty and the ways out of poverty were also analyzed. This discussion flowed into describing the concept of “development governance”. The facilitator hinted that development can mainly be understood from the perspective of addressing poverty and human needs, that human needs are the elements required for survival and normal mental and physical health. She said, Maslow had stated that, people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. “Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior”. In a quick intervention by the Course Advisor, Paul Emerhana, he opined that Maslow classified basic human needs into five levels which are represented with a triangle, noting that the primary need of man is the physiological needs (Food, air, water, oxygen, shelter, sleep, sex, warmth, good health etc). According to him, “man can survive with these needs, but man is not satisfied until he gets to the pick of the triangle classified by Maslow as the needs of self-actualization”. The understanding of development governance became clearer after the poverty tree and the concept of basic human needs were analyzed. A conclusion was drawn to state that development governance is a concept that is not in existence in literature but for the purpose of the course “development governance was defined as a process of making a collective decision by all stakeholders in order to bring about fundamental and substantial changes in the society that meets a people’s need(s)”’.

 In further broadening the understanding of trainees, the Advisor trained them on the concept of Human Rights-Based Approach to development and the global Sustainable Development Goals. He said no one should talk about development without analyzing its implication and therefore assess the understanding of participants on what human rights are all about. Continuing, he said that “the central dynamics of a right-based approach is about identifying root causes of poverty, empowering rights-holders to claim their rights and enabling duty-bearers to meet their obligations”. The HRBA is also a tool to reach people who are the poorest and most vulnerable. It allows the views of the people (rights-holders) to be considered in such communities through active engagement and participation, providing a comprehensive understanding of the problems at hand and their causes and consequences. The HRBA ensures that projects aren’t planned in isolation from reality and without an understanding of the concerns of the perspective of rights-holders and duty-bearers. The approach enables ordinary people to decide the paths of development with the tools of community needs assessment, which is a combination of information gathering, community engagements and focused action with the goal of community improvement.

He went further to say that “the year 2015 marked the deadline for MDGs and the world moved to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. The Goals are a new, universal set of goals, targets and indicators that 193 countries in the world have jointly set under the leadership of the United Nations”. There are 169 targets for the 17 goals. Each target has between 1 and 3 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. In total, there are 232 approved indicators that will measure compliance. For the purpose of the training, he laid special emphasis on goal 1-5 which are: No Poverty (1), Zero Hunger (2), Good Health and Wellbeing (3), Quality Education (4) and Gender Equality (5). The most important goal among the 17 goals is education. Education is the tools needed to create jobs to eradicate global poverty, achieving zero hunger, good health and environmental sustainability. All that is required by governments, industries, philanthropists and individuals is to do all they can to contribute to the realization of the first five goals which is the foundation of all the other goals. The approaches needed to achieve the set goals are not as complex as people perceive, because the targets, indicators and strategies are clearly stated. What is needed is the political will by all nations to reflect the desire needs of their nations on the global agenda.

Participants were given a task to solve some basic problems putting the concept of human rights-based approaches into practice. One of the problems they proffered solution to, is the case of oil spill which ravaged K-Dere community, Ogoniland, River State in 2007, from Shell’s facility. Participants were further tasked to create local solutions to the SDGs on their own. 

Because of time constraints, participants were made to vote for one out of the remaining three topics left in the manual to be treated. From the votes it showed that participants preferred the “ecological debt” over development politics and tools for development advocacy since they can read them up on their own.
Fred Nohwo, Executive Director of ACERD, initiated a conversation with the participants on what they feel ecological debt stands for. Their responses confirmed the reason they voted for the topic. Fred, continued by saying “the ecological debt concept is ecological damage caused over time by a country in one or other countries or to ecosystems beyond national jurisdiction through its production and consumption patterns and the exploitation or use of ecosystems over time by a country at the expense of the equitable rights to these ecosystems by other countries. The concept casts a new light on our understanding of ‘sustainable development’, not just by adding a historical dimension but by bringing power and justice to center stage, to reveal control over resources and pollution burdens as an issue of power relations. The point is not to exchange external debt for protection of nature (e.g. debt for nature swaps) but to emphasize that the external debt from South to North has already been paid on account of the ecological debt the North owes to the South, and to stop the ecological debt from increasing any further. The concept has the potential to help the implementation of sustainability and to fight environmental injustices.” Concluding the presentation, he engaged with participants using a simple formula in calculating ecological debt. This exercise helped to broaden the understanding of the trainees on the elements they should look out for when they want to make claims for an ecological debt own them and real negotiation skills. 

3.0 Outcome
Before the training, participants expressed concerns over the choice of the topics through a pre-training survey carried out to check how familiar they were with the chosen topics. They said the topics were very ambiguous and they feared if they would understand anything at the end of the training. The post-training evaluation carried out showed how excited the participants were to have taken part in the training. They confirmed that the choice of topics for the training was very relevant to the work they do, while noting that they have leant so many tools and skills that can add value to the course they pursue. Some of the topics that were highly rated by the participants as topics they never thought would be relevant to them were the concept of a human rights-based approach to development; community needs assessments and ecological debts. Development politics which focused on the implication of neoliberalism and the growing cases of land grabbing in Nigeria and advocacy tools for development such as Free Prior and Informed Concept (FPIC), Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA) and the Global Memorandum of Understanding were also in the manual to help enhance their understanding.

A WhatsApp group which was canvassed for as one of the post-training outputs has been created to receive post-training feedback and outcome harvesting. This is also important to clarify issues in the training manual that are difficult for participants to understand most especially in the topics that were not treated.

4.0 Resolution 
At the end of the training participants, therefore resolved that:
  1. Development should not be seen only as a tool to addressing poverty and human needs but a tool to reverse the ecological damages that it has created,
  2. Government should always fulfill her obligation or responsibility to respect and protect the rights of the poorest, weakest, most marginalized and vulnerable, and to comply with these obligations and duties,
  3. Governments and the private sectors should make it a point of duty to always conduct a community need assessment before carrying out development projects in communities,
  4. Government at all levels should commit to prioritizing where necessary the implementation of the global sustainable development goals to ensure that the 2030 targets are met in all key sectors,
  5. Rich countries’ Corporations making disproportionate use of environmental space or services without payment (for instance, to dump carbon dioxide and pollution) should be made to pay and replenish the environment,
  6. The Land Use Act remains the most controversial legislation act in Nigeria which the Federal Government as a matter of urgency, should do away with,
  7. The Nigerian government should stop aiding land grabbing and desist from providing more land to agribusiness companies,
  8. Governments and the private sector should ensure the adequate implementation of Article 19 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples which states that duty bearers shall “consult and cooperate in good faith with Indigenous Peoples concerned through their representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures and project that may affect them”.

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WHAT'S CODAF

CODAF also known as Rural Community Empowerment Initiative (RUCEi) works to bridge the communication gap between policy makers and the grassroots AND raise awareness of rural dwellers and empowering them to be active players in environmental decision making.

This mandate is anchored on article 24 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights which states that “All peoples shall have the right to a general satisfactory environment favourable to their development

OurGoal

To engage in intervention projects that builds the capacity and empowers rural community people to defend their collective rights to participating in natural resource governance through a right-based approach

OurMission

To engage in intervention projects that builds the capacity and empowers rural community people to defend their collective rights to participating in natural resource governance through a right-based approach

OurVision

We envision a self-sufficient community in the management of their environment and resources without any form of marginalization.